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Задание 10. Чтение. Понимание основного содержания прочитанного текста.. ЕГЭ 2021 по английскому языку

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Задачи для практики

Задача 1

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Confused with human hands
2. Tiny off springs
3. On the endangered species' list
4. Depositing a distinctive odor
5. Extinct African bears
6. Special conditions
7. The common predecessor
8. The largest and the smallest ones

Тексты

A. For over 30 million years, bears in one form or another have roamed the Earth. There are only 8 extant species of bear on Earth now. Bears live all over the world, and the different species inhabit various geographic regions. The different adaptations each species of bear has for its environment is one of the facts that helps us learn about evolution. We can see from these different adaptations how bears evolved from a common ancestor to have the traits they have today.

B. While bears did live in the Atlas Mountains of Africa for a period of time, there are no species of bear living in Africa at this time. Scientists today believe the Atlas bear to be extinct. The Roman Empire used many animals from Northern Africa to fight in spectacular competitions. From records, it seems thousands of bears were taken and made to fight with other animals like lions and tigers. The environment also had an impact on the extinction of the Atlas bear. As the desert in Northern Africa expanded, it reduced the woodland habitat where the Atlas bear lived.

C. Bears adapted in various ways for different environments. While most bears live in forests, the polar bear lives in the icy conditions of the Artic. In all species of bear, the male is larger than the female on average. There is a wider range of size between the different bear species. Kodiak bears and polar bears are the largest bears. The sun bear is the smallest bear. The largest male Kodiak bears can weigh up to 1500 lbs., and the smallest female sun bears can weigh as little 50 lbs.

D. The structure of the human hand and the bear claw are very similar. The bone structure is so alike, that the National Wildlife Laboratory published a special guide to help people tell the difference. People sometimes put bear paws out in public to shock other people. Also, bear remains which were found during excavation or construction, shocking workers and halted work on the job site. The National Wildlife guide helps people quickly identify the remains by highlighting the subtle differences between bear paws and human hands.

E. Polar bears may look nice and clean because of their white fur. Polar bears use their feet to leave scent markings. Polar bears have a very large territory, and scientists believe that sweat glands on their paws is a convenient way to mark their territory. This means polar bears are marking their territory simply by walking around. Most bears mark their territory by rubbing their backs against trees. However, polar bears have relatively few trees in their natural habitat in the Arctic.

F. The spectacled bear is the only bear that lives in South America and the species is classified as vulnerable to extinction on the Endangered Species List. The spectacled bear makes its home in the Andean jungles. This habitat is currently being devastated by human development. Spectacled bears are also killed by farmers who see them as pests, and are poached for their meat and claws. With fewer than 3,000 alive in the world today, we need to act soon before spectacled bears suffer the same fate as Atlas bears.

G. Scientists have been breeding panda bears in captivity since at least the 1960s to help stabilize the fragile panda bear population. Many advances have been made, and many new bear facts have been revealed. Breeding panda bears in captivity is a difficult task. The panda bear fetus is so small, that it’s often not seen by ultrasound. Baby panda bears are tiny fragile creatures. They are blind, hairless and only 1/900th the size of the mother. Pandas International compares the size of a baby panda bear to a stick of butter.

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Ответ: 7581432
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Задача 2

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Making drafts
2. Sold twice!
3. 1/4 of the сost
4. Criticizing comparisons
5. A long road to getting approval
6. The former tallest structure
7. The real designer
8. An enormous number of guests

Тексты

A. During its construction, which was completed in 1889, the Eiffel Tower became the tallest manmade structure, surpassing the height of the Washington Monument. In 1930, the Chrysler Building was built in New York City, becoming the tallest structure in the world at the time. The Eiffel Tower had held the title for 41 years! Later in 1957, an antenna was attached which, depending on how you determine the height of a structure, made the Eiffel Tower taller than the Chrysler Building.

B. Gustave Eiffel, the famous architect for whom the structure was named, did not actually design the Eiffel Tower. The initial design was sketched by Maurice Koechlin in May of 1884, while he was working at home. Koechlin was a senior engineer working for Eiffel’s architecture firm at the time. Koechlin was working with another architect in the firm, Emile Nouguier, to design a monument for the 1889 Exposition Universelle. The exposition was planned as a World’s Fair to celebrate the 100-year anniversary of the French Revolution.

C. In 1885 Eiffel presented the design to the Société des Ingiénieurs Civils as a symbol of the dawning Industrial Age. Two more years passed, and there were changes in government. Eiffel continued to lobby for the project and it was brought to review by a commission in 1886. The commission examined Eiffel’s proposal, along with competing proposals for the monument. Eiffel’s proposal was chosen because it was the most practical and most well planned. The other proposals seemed impossible or were not completely thought through.

D. During the course of the planning, Eiffel’s firm produced 1,700 general drawings, and 3,629 detailed drawings. The drawings captured the 18,038 pieces that make up the tower. Bear in mind all of this was being done by hand, before the 1900s. The construction began in January of 1887 after a location had been determined. The massive concrete and limestone foundations of the Eiffel Tower were the first things to be put into place. The tower would be assembled in a modular fashion.

E. While it is considered by many to be a work of art today, at the time, many artists and writers protested against the building of the tower based on the drawings that were exhibited. Eiffel responded by defending the monumental nature of the work, comparing it to the Pyramids of Egypt. It was an apt description. At the time, the Pyramids were still some of the largest man-made structures on Earth. Gustave Eiffel was not too concerned about the criticism, as the project had already been approved.

F. In 1925, after World War I, the Eiffel Tower was not in the best condition. One conman, named Victor Lustig held a secret meeting of scrap dealers and, using forged government stationary, offered to sell the Eiffel Tower for scrap! The scrap dealer gave him a bribe along with the money for the tower. Lustig and his accomplice fled to Vienna with a suitcase full of money. A month later, Lustig couldn’t help himself, and he returned to Paris to try the scheme again. This time, the person he tried to scam went to the police.

G. Elevators or lifts were installed in the tower shortly after its debut. This is a good thing! Walking to the top took early visitors hours. The lifts have been modified, upgraded and replaced many times over the years. Visitors to the Eiffel Tower include daredevils who have staged stunts, such as bungee jumping from the tower. The Eiffel Tower has become a must-see destination in Paris and, at the last count, more than 200,000,000 people had visited the tower!

Решение
Ответ: 6751428
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Задача 3

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. As hot as the Sun
2. A great range of goods
3. Reach the Moon
4. If the Earth was smooth
5. Where space begins
6. Like a squashed ball
7. The cause of the slowdown
8. Chemical composition

Тексты

A. The incredible natural resources and the ingenuity of the people that live on the Earth combine to make an impressive output of goods and services that are traded to sustain, inform and entertain. The sheer scale of the world economy is mind-boggling. Each year humankind produces $72 trillion worth of goods and services. When we examine historical facts, we see that the production of goods and services across the world really took off about 200 years ago with the dawn of the Industrial Age.

B. Many people call the Earth Mother Earth because the planet sustains all life as we know it. In the same way a mother feeds and protects her children, the Earth feeds and protects all of humanity. Studies regarding the shape of the Earth show that our planet is not a perfect sphere. There is a bulge around the center of the Earth. This is what’s considered an oblate spheroid. This bulge around the center of the Earth means the diameter at the equator is 43 kilometers, or 27 miles, larger than the diameter going top to bottom or from the North Pole to the South Pole.

C. The Earth is made up of a handful of elements and a sprinkling of trace elements. The Earth is strong! It is 32.1% iron. Surprisingly, oxygen accounts for 30.1%. Silicon, which makes computer chips, makes up 60.2% of the Earth’s crust and 15.1% of the total elements in the Earth. From these facts, it’s clear why certain elements are valuable. A metal like gold is only a trace element compared to the mass of the Earth.

D. Conditions at the Earth’s core are shocking. It appears that 20% of the heat is still the Earth cooling off from when all the rocks slammed together to form the planet in the early solar system. Another 80% of this heat occurs in the form of radioactive decay. Radioactive elements are all present in the Earth’s core, and are giving off a lot of heat. So much heat, in fact, that the temperature of the Earth’s core is as hot as the surface of the sun, at more than 10,000 °F!

E. All of the Earth’s oceans connect to form one large ocean that covers over 70% of the Earth’s surface. There’s a lot more water than land on the surface of the Earth. While the oceans only cover the surface of the Earth, they account for 1/4400 of the mass of the Earth. If the Earth was totally smooth, with no mountains, or valleys on land, or underwater, the result would be a 2.7 kilometer, or 1.5 mile, deep ocean that covered the entire surface of the Earth.

F. There is no clear boundary between the Earth’s atmosphere and outer space. While we typically think of the Earth as this perfect sphere, scientists prove that spherical shape of the Earth is not so perfect. The atmosphere slowly becomes thinner and thinner until it fades into outer space. There’s no clear line or sign that says welcome to outer space. The atmosphere of Earth is one of the unique features that allows such an amazing array of life forms to exist on the planet.

G. The speed at which the Earth orbits the Sun is over 100,000 kilometers per hour, or over 66,000 miles per hour! Moving at that speed, you could reach the moon in 3.5 hours, and you could travel the whole way around the Earth in about seven minutes. When we look at Earth facts about how fast the Earth rotates, we find that it’s spinning fast, too. The Earth is spinning at 1,675 kilometers per hour, or over 1,040 miles per hour!

Решение
Ответ: 2681453
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Задача 4

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Speaking position
2. The power of questioning
3. Selecting for effect
4. Ways to speak publicly
5. Avoiding monotony
6. Common mistakes in a conversation
7. Direct, specific and clear
8. Demonstrating feelings

Тексты

A. It’s been said that people appreciate your ideas by the words you use, and this is true. Choose your words wisely. Words have power. They have the power to move nations and they have the power to destroy as well. When you speak, use your words carefully. Avoid using words that will cause the other person think poorly of you. Use words that communicate positive values. Make sure they are understandable. Use words that are colorful and rich with meaning, as long as they can be understood by the listener.

B. Just as important as what you say is how you say it. What tone are you using? When you speak, are you monotone? Or do you move the tone of your voice, changing it up? This will naturally help people follow what you’re saying. Changing the tone of your voice is a very effective way to draw people into your message. Imagine if a painter only used one color. We want lots of colors and lots of tones. The speed with which you speak will tell others certain things.

C. The emotions you communicate while speaking are vital. The key here is to show emotion without “getting emotional.” Emotions can be a very effective communicator. For example, showing anger can communicate that you are very serious about something. Allowing yourself to cry can show a side of you to others that communicates that you are a person of passion who, while being a hard-charging person who desires success, also has a tender side. Emotion, if controlled, is a powerful communicator.

D. When you’re communicating, especially in a presentation situation, your speaking position, whether you are standing, sitting, kneeling, etc., can communicate a lot. For example, my good friend Zig Ziglar, a master of the stage, will frequently move to the front of the stage and kneel. He is saying, “Listen closely to this. This is really important.” He is bringing the audience in for an intimate moment. Sitting communicates casualness. Many speakers will give a considerable part of their presentation this way. This style is informative and casual—and it is effective.

E. Clear-cut communication increases the likelihood that people will comprehend and take action on whatever you’re asking from them. It’s better to over-explain something than to leave room for misunderstanding. It’s helpful to prepare your thoughts in advance so you include all the relevant details. Don’t end a conversation until you’re sure the other person understands your objectives and how to achieve them. Deliver these instructions in a friendly, open way so the other person knows they can approach you with follow-up questions.

F. Have you ever had a conversation with someone who only responded in two- or three-word sentences, and you walked away feeling like you learned very little? The person might not have been intentionally giving you short answers; perhaps you could have phrased your questions better. A lot of people fail to understand the power of asking quality questions. One effective tip for asking stronger questions is to frame questions in a positive tone. Framing things positively assures the direction of the conversation and leaves others with a pleasant memory of the exchange.

G. If you prefer speaking on the main stage in front of larger groups, then you would fancy delivering keynotes. This option can create exceptional opportunities for consulting, long after your speech is over. If you have a new idea that you’re really passionate about or have an innovative way of presenting a familiar topic. If you enjoy sharing your expertise in a collaborative setting, consider the impact of participating in a conference environment as an expert panelist. Opportunities to communicate with smaller groups include breakout sessions or workshops.

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Ответ: 3581724
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Задача 5

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Types of honey
2. Deterioration in the quality
3. A low water content
4. Influence of plants
5. From ancient times
6. Honey shelf life
7. Buying pure honey
8. Depending on the temperature

Тексты

A. Honey, often referred to as "liquid gold," houses a wide range of vitamins and minerals. In the normal honey-making process, honey is filtered to remove contaminants, such as bee parts, waxes and other impurities. Nothing wrong there; nobody wants to chew on bee parts or wax, right? Ultra-filtration is a high-tech procedure in which honey is heated and pushed through extremely fine filters at high pressure. This technique not only removes contaminants, but pushes out the pollen and many other beneficial vitamins, minerals and enzymes, too.

B. Did you know that there are more than 300 distinct varieties of honey? Different types of honey are categorized by the ways they are sold. Comb honey is taken directly just as it is stored by the bees. Liquid honey is the most common form of honey found on shelves and used by most people. Granulated honey is a powdered form of honey that is made by drying the honey in order to draw out the water. Creamed honey is a blend of granulated and liquid honey.

C. Avocado honey from the flowers of this plant tends to be darker in color and has a rich, buttery taste. Blueberry honey, contrary to popular belief, is not honey with blueberries added. It is actually derived from blueberry flowers. Clover honey is the variety that most people think of as common, table honey. Eucalyptus honey is as varied as the species of plant from which it comes. It has a wide variety of color and flavor. Orange blossom honey is mixed with nectar from citrus flowers.

D. Raw honey is not subjected to any sort of heat processing, though it is sometimes strained for a more pleasing presentation. This means that it still contains all of its natural nutrients. The best temperature for pasteurization of honey is 145 degrees Fahrenheit. This destroys many of the nutrients in the honey the same way that cooking vegetables at high temperatures breaks down their vitamins and minerals. Adding pasteurized honey to tea or coffee will have no effect on its nutrients, because they are already destroyed.

E. It is believed that honey history dated as far back as 10 to 20 million years ago and the practice of beekeeping to produce honey, apiculture, dates back to at least 700 BC. In ancient times, Eygptians sacrificed honey by the tons to their river gods, Roman legions slathered honey on the wounds as a natural cure to promote healing, and medieval lords reserved honey for their private use. It's told that the body of Alexander the Great was preserved and embalmed with honey.

F. Honey is a miracle food; it never goes bad. It was reported that archaeologists found 2000 year old jars of honey in Egyptian tombs and they still tasted delicious! Many people find it rather surprising that bacteria cannot grow in honey because all things being equal, bacteria loves sugar. The unique chemical composition of low water content and relatively high acidic level in honey creates a low pH environment that makes it very unfavourable for bacteria or other micro-organism to grow.

G. Personally, when selecting honey in the shop, I think it's almost impossible to tell the bad from the good by just looking at the honey content through the jar or studying its food and nutrition labels. My take is always to go for the trusted or better known brands. The best is to be able to ask the source or supplier of the honey questions about the honey origin and how the honey is harvested and processed to get an assurance on the quality.

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Ответ: 2148567
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Задача 6

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Taste preferences
2. Symbol of credibility
3. Reliance on bamboo leaves
4. Factors for endangering
5. Natural habitats
6. Reducing resources
7. Diets in captivity
8. Cub rearing

Тексты

A. A panda's daily diet consists almost entirely of the leaves, stems and shoots of various bamboo species. Bamboo contains very little nutritional value so pandas must eat up to 38 kg every day to meet their energy needs. But they do branch out, with about 1% of their diet comprising other plants and even meat. While they are almost entirely vegetarian, pandas will sometimes hunt for small rodents. Indeed, as members of the bear family, giant pandas possess the digestive system of a carnivore, although they have evolved to depend almost entirely on bamboo.

B. Where do pandas live? Pandas are native to the temperate-zone bamboo forests of central China. They once lived in lowland areas, but farming, forest clearing, and other development have pushed them into the mountains of southwestern China, mostly in the Sichuan Province. This is due to the fact that China’s human population has been steadily growing and is now the largest in the world. Pandas are beloved everywhere and their images often appear on many gift and novelty items.

C. Pandas are said to have a predilection for copper and iron. They really seem to enjoy licking every scrap of food from their metal bowls, even turning the bowl in their two dexterous paws. An ancient reputation as a licker and eater of copper and iron came from a liking for dishes or cooking pots in dwellings of Chinese peasants. Another strange behaviour, but with a modern twist, we witnessed, is them enjoying "fruit lollipops" — fruit frozen in a metal dish of water to cool them down in the heat of summer in Chengdu.

D. Giant pandas are born tiny (about 100 g), blind, white and helpless. The mother cradles her tiny cub in a paw and doesn't leave the den for several days after giving birth, even to drink. Cubs soon develop soft gray fur, which becomes coarser and develops its black and white pattern in a month. The new born panda doesn't move from the den in the first two months. After three months baby pandas begin to crawl. Cubs start to eat bamboo around six months and are fully weaned at nine months.

E. The first threat to the panda was poaching for food and/ or the soft fur. Poaching existed since ancient times, but the rate of poaching increased after the animal became known around the world. Although poaching is no longer a major threat to pandas it did cause a significant drop in the population. The greatest modern threat to the species is the loss of their habitat. Since the middle of the last century China has undergone a population boom and much of the traditional habitat of the animal has been destroyed.

F. This peaceful creature with a distinctive black and white coat is adored by the world and considered a national treasure in China. The bear also has a special significance for WWF. One of the reasons why WWF chose panda as its logo was to save cost! Sir Peter Scott, one of the founders, said, “We wanted an animal that is beautiful, is endangered, and one loved by many people in the world for its appealing qualities. We also wanted an animal that had an impact in black and white to save money on printing costs.”

G. Pandas have the most specialized diet of any of the bears. Their diet is almost exclusively two species of bamboo. Bamboo plants only grow in a few places. This limits the range of pandas tremendously. Bamboo species go through periodic die-off s after they flower. Most plants in an area die-off at the same time. When this happened in the past, pandas would migrate to another area where the bamboo was still flourishing. However, this option is not always available. This leads to periodic starvations among panda populations.

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Ответ: 3518426
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Задача 7

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Switching to a new type
2. Profitable fruit
3. To harvest early
4. An unusual life cycle
5. Health benefits
6. A special way of growing
7. Botanical properties
8. First domesticated bananas

Тексты

A. Banana belongs to the family of Musaceae. Commercially, it is one of the widely cultivated crops in the tropical and subtropical zones. Banana flourishes well on tropical, moisture-rich, humid, low-lying farmlands. Banana has unique growth characteristics. In fact, the whole plant is a false stem. It is consisting of broad leaves, together with their long petioles, overlapping each other in a disclike fashion. The whole plant may reach 2 to 6 meters in height from the ground surface depending upon the cultivar types.

B. Banana is one of the high-calorie tropical fruits. The fruit holds a good amount of fiber that helps in regular bowel movements. Banana is a good source of vitamin B6; provides about 25% of daily-recommended allowance. The fruit is also an ideal source of vitamin C. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infections. Fresh bananas provide adequate levels of minerals like copper which is an essential element in the production of red blood cells. Besides, it helps control heart rate and blood pressure.

C. Recent archaeological evidence in the Western Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea suggests that banana cultivation there goes back to at least 5000 BC, and possibly to 8000 BC. It is likely that other species were later and independently domesticated elsewhere in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asia is the region of primary diversity of the banana. Areas of secondary diversity are found in Africa, indicating a long history of banana cultivation in the region. The banana may also have been present in isolated locations elsewhere in the Middle East.

D. One risk associated with genetically modified bananas is that when the plants are genetically identical, they are much more susceptible to plant diseases spreading over an entire species of banana. If one plant is not resistant to the disease, none of them are. This happened in the 1960’s when the then-popular type of banana, the Gros Michel, was reduced to near extinction by a pathogen called the “Panama Disease.” Scientists are working to prevent the same thing from happening to Cavendish bananas we eat now.

E. Bananas are artificially ripened so that they are good to eat right on time. Bananas have a very short “shelf life,” and it is easy to tell whether or not a banana is good. Because of this, bananas are harvested long before they are ripe so that they do not turn brown and nasty until after they have been on your counter for a few days. The ships have temperature-controlled compartments for the bananas. The still-green bananas are unloaded and brought to facilities with temperature-controlled “ripening rooms”.

F. Bananas and plantains constitute a major staple food crop for millions of people in developing countries. Bananas are cooked in ways that are similar to potatoes. Both can be fried, boiled, baked, or chipped and have similar taste and texture when served. One banana provides about the same calories as one potato. Most producers are small-scale farmers either for home consumption or local markets. Because bananas and plantains produce fruit yearround, they provide an extremely valuable food source.

G. Modern, commercial strains of banana don’t have seeds. Well, they do, but they’re tiny, unlike wild and often inedible varieties of bananas, which have large and viable seeds. Seedless fruit-bearing plants are normally breed only with human help because the plant has no natural way to regenerate when it dies. Here again, bananas break the mold. The stems above and below ground produce new shoots at the base of the visible stem. These begin growing into new, flowering stems just as the old one is dying.

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Ответ: 7581326
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Задача 8

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Carnivore animals
2. Adjusting to extreme cold
3. Living in large colonies
4. Diving deep
5. Giants from New Zealand
6. Without flying for millions years
7. Travel north to feed
8. Able to drink salt water

Тексты

A. One of the most amazing facts involves just how long ago penguins began evolving towards life in the water and lost their ability to fly. The oldest fossil of a penguin species dates from over 60 million years ago! This penguin had already lost the ability to fly. While it was not as well adapted to marine life as today’s penguins, it is definitely a penguin ancestor. Scientists speculate that these ancient penguins swam mostly on the top of the water. However, their wings had already evolved to be better used as flippers in the water and the bird could no longer fly.

B. When we look at fossil records, we find some amazing ancestors of the penguins we are used to seeing today. Emperor penguins are the largest penguins alive today. These birds can be up to 4 feet tall and can weigh 100 pounds. Giant penguin fossils have been found in New Zealand. These penguins lived 40 million years ago and were nearly 6 feet tall and weighed over 170 pounds! It may have been that there was an abundance of food available with few competitors, so the penguins grew larger.

C. Many children’s movies and cartoons feature penguins as prominent characters. Make no mistake, these cuddly-looking creatures eat only meat, and no vegetables. Penguins survive on a diet of mostly fish. They also consume other marine animals, including squid and octopus. This diet is partly a result of the region of the Earth they inhabit. Nearly all penguins live in the Southern Hemisphere, and many live in the Antarctic where there is little to no vegetation. Adult penguins can be preyed on by leopard seals and killer whales, or orcas.

D. Penguins have many special adaptations for living in cold weather. They have a thick layer of feathers that acts as insulation, and they can also control the flow of blood to their extremities, maintaining just enough blood flow to keep those body parts from freezing. A unique behavior of penguins demonstrates their ability to work together as a group to provide benefits to each individual. During the coldest months of winter, after the mother emperor penguin lays her egg, she goes hunting while the father stands over the egg to keep it warm.

E. For instance, when it comes to diving, emperor penguins are capable of diving to depths of 1,854 ft. in search of fish and squid to eat. To compensate for the extreme pressures at these depths – up to 40 times the pressure at the surface – emperor penguins have special adaptations. Their bones are solid instead of air-filled, like other birds, to reduce barotrauma. During deep dives, the emperor penguin’s heart rate drops to 15-20 beats per minute to conserve oxygen. The emperor penguin’s blood also has special properties.

F. It seems that penguins are tough inside and out. Their digestive system has unique features that allow the bird to survive and thrive in its marine lifestyle. Penguins have a supraorbital gland, which is a gland that filters out sodium chloride from the blood stream. In other words, the gland filters salt out of the blood. This allows penguins to drink salt water when they are thirsty! Don’t try that if you get stranded on a desert island, however – it would kill you!

G. Penguins are social animals, and they like to hang out! Emperor penguins live in colonies that number into the thousands, but interesting facts shock us with the real party-animals of the penguin order: macaroni penguins. Macaroni penguins can group in colonies of several hundred thousand birds at once! That’s not a party – that’s a festival! As a result of living in these large groups, penguins have adapted many unique vocalizations and displays to communicate with other birds. Male penguins have unique behavior when they huddle in heat packs to stay warm.

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Ответ: 6512483
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Задача 9

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Be the first to approach
2. Be helpful
3. People who suit you best
4. A natural behaviour
5. Carefully listen to what others say
6. Stay in touch after leaving
7. Make yourself comfortable
8. Talking is a key to success

Тексты

A. Most people fail to harbor the courage to talk open minded with people they have first met or strangers in any place. Your first impression is not the last impression. When you enter a new place, say, your school or college, or even your workplace, it’s obvious to feel nervous. Don't worry, so are the others. You just need to show that you're scared, too. They have seen you for the first time so try not to flaunt yourself, instead; be yourself. Think of them as if they have already been your friends.

B. We often feel alone inside metro, buses, parks or a new institution. Being able to approach new people saves us from that awkward time that we often face when we don't know anyone we are looking at. Relations are not sent by God, so try to adjust in whichever seat you get. Making access to other's choices is also important to show you care. You need not argue with someone for the best seat. If you want a particular place for yourself like the front seat or the middle one, then just be sure to come a little early the next day.

C. The person beside you or in front of you is seeing you for the first time. Just act normal and introduce yourself, like "Hi, I'm Sasha and you?" or focus on his/her notebook or mobile phone and say, "Good choice, it’s very trendy." You could just simply comment on his/her dress or shoes or even hairstyle. Show that you like him/ her. Sometimes there are certain common things that initiate conversation, like the classroom you are in or the boss you are working for. Either way, feel free to voice your opinion.

D. Rushing with your rambling is always not a good idea; you should also pause and listen partners’ response. Try to engage more in their topics and views. When they find you reliable and easier to talk, you will find them interesting too. Don't think for any topics beforehand. Let the conversation lead you. You will see one topic leads to another. It often becomes smooth when you act naturally. Pretence is not necessary unless you didn't enroll for an acting course.

E. Make sure to offer help when people need one. It's up to them to trust you or not, but you could show concern and interest in them. Who knows, you might get help in return. When you're alone in a new place, you won't know what you need and when. So instead of regretting later, you could just ask for some help too unless it’s very personal. A helping hand once in a while saves from embarrassment. Always be honest to yourself and the others around you.

F. Don't push yourself far enough for attention. Just wait for the right time. It's very rude to not ask for the contact number, especially after the other person has helped you. Even if you do not intend for further communication, just an occasional 'Hi!' or 'Hello! How are you?' sums it up. Remember the first person you met saved you from boredom and has at least been a friend to you. Just for the sake of that, drop a message sometimes to show that you remember. Always be thankful.

G. One good way to make friends is to join an organization, club, or sports team. If joining a group is too far out of your comfort zone, try striking up conversations with people you see regularly, like someone you sit next to in class or the cashier at your favorite store. It's OK if you're nervous to talk to them. Just smile, stand up straight, and make eye contact so you seem friendly. The more often you talk to them, the more comfortable you'll get.

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Ответ: 4715268
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Задача 10

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Display inquisitiveness
2. Be self-disciplined
3. Extend your learning
4. Discover cultural diversity
5. Challenge yourself
6. Focus on people’s wisdom
7. Involve yourself into new spheres
8. Stick to a schedule

Тексты

A. Self-education requires a willingness to learn, the self-discipline to stay focused and a level of interest that exceeds the standard job mill education. A curious mind seeks to be educated. By asking questions, you can find out a lot of things that many people don't know and won't ever know. In fact, questioning is key to active and meaningful learning. The formulation of a good question is also a creative act. Questions help us to make sense of the world.

B. Try to expand your mind by learning beyond your comfort zone and seeing how other people think, perceive and understand things. If you only ever see romantic comedies, watch a documentary or an action film instead. If you only ever read comics, try a novel instead. If you only ever see car rallies, go and see a museum exhibition instead. Read world history and learn about different cultures. It is one of the finest ways of self-educating. Read about others who self-educate.

C. Curiosity is about pushing yourself beyond what you're used to. There will be times when you feel really uncomfortable, out of your depth and perhaps even upset when trying to learn new things. This can happen especially where you feel dumb, unlearned or when your beliefs and values are challenged. These are the very times when you should keep pushing yourself to learn and to become wiser about whatever it is you've been avoiding. Read a lot. Without fail, always read something, and make it substantial.

D. Read English from different parts of the world, don't assume that authors from your own country are the only ones worth reading. By extending your reading to elsewhere in the world, you'll discover that even with one language, the thinking is diverse and the ways of seeing the world are wonderfully varied. When you feel more competent in this area, push into other languages. Realize that learning a language is about immersing yourself in another culture too.

E. If you're learning or have learned the basics in math, science and other subjects, find out what you've yet to learn and set about teaching yourself. There is much more beyond the basics and most of it will challenge you in much more interesting ways than your initial learning did. If you did badly at a subject, do not let this hold you back. Every brain is plastic and capable of being rewired to relearn things and to learn new things.

F. Self-education requires very good self-discipline. Besides, borrow from intelligent people what you consider works well to improve the mind and understanding. Observe, learn and apply what you see good from them. You can learn a lot from them if you just take the time to sit with and listen to them. Should you feel that what they tell you is old hat and odd, put aside your biases and really listen. There are authentic human things to learn from older people.

G. By the time finals roll around and your time is precious - every minute counts. That is why scheduling is essential during the preparation for the exams. So as not to become totally confused during this stressful time, make a realistic study schedule for yourself, too. Leave yourself time for breaks - you'll be taking them anyway - and be sure to prioritize according to which class you'll need to study for the most.

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Ответ: 1754368
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Задача 11

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. The trend catches on
2. To keep shoes clean
3. Long history
4. An ambitious plan
5. For stage plays
6. An unexpected way out
7. Are they toys?
8. A European royal trend

Тексты

A. The pillow was invented so that bugs would not crawl into the noses, ears, and mouths of people while they were sleeping. The pillow was first used in what is present-day Iraq over 9,000 years ago. Back then, it was carved from stone. Ancient Egyptians also used pillows because they wanted to protect their heads. Ancient Chinese used hard pillows (although they knew how to make softer ones) because of the belief that soft pillows depleted the body’s energy.

B. The idea of a high heel or platform shoe is actually a seriously ancient one. One of the first traced high-level pieces of footwear in history belonged to actors in ancient Greece. However, these weren't necessarily worn off stage; they were actually meant as a kind of shorthand about the social class of various characters in Greek drama and comedy. The higher the heel, the more "elevated" the character. There's also evidence that ancient Egyptians used heels, though not for everyday use.

C. Many noblemen of the medieval Persian empire wore heels as riding shoes, often in decadent materials and bright colours, to enable them to get a better grip on their stirrups. The European royals really perked up and took notice when a Persian monarch, Shah Abbas, came to tour European courts and make noble friends in the 1500s. The diplomatic gesture turned into a fashionable one, too: people saw the beautiful heeled shoes worn by the Shah and his entourage, and decided to make them their own.

D. It feels like a common sense thing to say, but along with the collapse of society, the loss of power, and the lawlessness that will inevitably accompany the end of the world, your chances of using email, telephone, or Facebook to communicate will be practically zilch. Luckily, China has the answer—the carrier pigeon. According to reports, the People’s Liberation Army recently trained a “pigeon army” to carry messages between military and political facilities should there be a major collapse in the country’s communication network.

E. The idea of the heel actually being a "female" notion took a very long time to develop. One of the places where it took hold, however, was in Venice in the 1400s. But these weren't heels that you'd like to wear clubbing these days. Chopines, as they're called, were staggeringly high, slightly-tilted shoes with as many as 24 inches of narrowed platform underneath. They were originally designed to keep the mud off the more delicate "real" shoes of ladies walking in the street.

F. Ethiopia is an important trading hub, which makes effective border control difficult to maintain. As a result of limited resources for border enforcement staff, serious organised crime – such as wildlife traffi cking – often goes undetected. Wildlife crime is the world’s fourth most prevalent form of criminal activity. Animals often die in transit when exported over borders. Cheetahs and other big cats are regularly exported to the Middle East as ‘exotic pets’. To a rich elite these animals are just another status symbol, like a sports car or an expensive watch.

G. The real fashion maven, and patron saint of the heel, was Louis XIV of France, otherwise known as The Sun King. He loved all things ornate; he was the one who made the seriously decadent Palace of Versailles his centre of power. And the heel was just the thing he wanted to look even more elaborate. Standing at just 5'4", he adopted it enthusiastically, often with up to four inches of heel on his court shoes. He even developed a trademark of red-painted heels and ordered all male members of his court dye their heels the same color.

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Ответ: 3516278
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Задача 12

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. The size matters
2. Created for design
3. Mysterious disappearance
4. Necessary requirements
5. The way to save it
6. Not fashionable at first
7. An ambitious initiative
8. Pluses of complexity

Тексты

A. What actually was the first tie is somewhat disputed. It could either be a cloth worn around the neck to protect its wearer from cold and also double as a handkerchief. Or it could be the a piece of clothing that Croatian soldiers participating in the Thirty Years War wore around their necks to allow them identify each other on the battlefield. After the war, French soldiers introduced the tie to France, where it was often worn by the rich upper class.

B. Bubble wrap is that nylon-like polymer filled with air bubbles that everyone, or at least almost everyone, loves pressing. Today, it is used to wrap items to prevent them from damage, although it can also be used to save the life of someone suffering from hypothermia. Bubble wrap did not start off as a material for protecting goods while in transit. It was invented in 1957 when Alfred Fielding and Marc Chavannes sewed two shower curtains together. Their plan was to create a wallpaper that would have some airbubble space within.

C. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums approved rules requiring any zoo with elephants to keep at least three of the species and a full-time elephant scientist on staff, among other things. But not every zoo has the space or budget to meet those guidelines. Some, such as the zoos in Omaha, San Diego and Houston, have doubled down with better facilities. Others in San Francisco, Seattle and Chicago, to name a few have given up on keeping elephants entirely.

D. Small group travel makes for the best experience. It’s why many tourist agencies limit the size of their groups to just 16. Small group journey transforms from bus trip to road trip, complete with likeminded travellers that become new best mates. Tourist agencies would make more money if they crammed as many people on their buses as they can, but they don’t. It means that while the big group has to stick to the main road, small groups can easily get to those magical, hard to reach places.

E. The internet has reached almost every corner of the globe, but most research on how it is used, particularly among children, focuses on the US and Europe. This is a problem, because according to best estimates one in three children around the world now uses the internet – most of them outside the West. Global Kids Online is an ambitious project to find out which children are using the internet, what they are learning, and the opportunities and risks it presents.

F. While teenagers have always thought they knew everything, current generations are part of a continuing trend of increasing IQ scores over the last 100 years. James Flynn, who first observed the trend, says it’s due to the world becoming increasingly complex. People are becoming better and better at analyzing the world, rather than thinking in terms of what’s useful to their survival. As technology and access to information continues to increase, it’s possible that IQ scores will as well.

G. Even though our air and water may be much cleaner than it was more than 40 years ago, Earth Day is more important than ever. With carbon emissions climbing, temperatures rising, and weather getting weirder all over, it can feel like the existential threat of our changing climate is impossible to stop. But don’t let the scope of the problem get you down. You can change your lifestyle to help protect the environment, and you can vote by supporting companies who help protect it, too.

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Задача 13

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Enjoy quiet personal space
2. Personal development is provided
3. The library is filled with adventure
4. Finding useful assistance
5. Making unusual discoveries
6. Library events and programs
7. Book rentals are provided
8. Free stuff is offered

Тексты

A. Going to the library is a rewarding pastime that many of us already enjoy. It can encourage reading and exploration in children. Children can learn at every turn. Even being responsible for returning books on time can teach some basics of responsibility. Studies have shown that students who visit the library tend to have better test scores than those who don’t. Studies have also shown that reading can aid in brain development in young children, so it’s important to read to them and encourage them to read and visit the library from a very young age.

B. The library is home to a wealth of free items, such as free newspapers, magazines, audiobooks, CD, DVD, and video rentals; free eBooks, free Wi-Fi, free computers and the Internet access. It means that you’ll have access to much more than just books. It would cost a fortune to try purchasing all of these sources of reading, music, and videos, but fortunately, the library has access to much more than your home library and entertainment centre could ever store. Moreover, using the Internet you can research whatever you need and have access to a computer whenever you need it.

C. Libraries offer all types of events and programs for bookworms. You can enjoy everything from author readings to health workshops. Every library is different, so you can’t expect anything in particular, but some activities commonly provided at the library include author readings for adults and kids, poetry circles, story circles for kids, puppet shows, family films, special programs for children, book discussions, reading programs and summer events, used book sales, workshops like knitting and parenting skills.

D. You can find rare material at your local library that you won’t be able to find elsewhere. You’ll also be able to find old books for sale at a great price, so make sure to keep your eyes open for any of their cheap book sales. If you haven’t been to your local library, you may be shocked to find what kind of food and shopping options they have. It could all be easily missed if you don’t know that you don’t take the time to really map out your library and find out what they offer.

E. The library is full of other bookworms. You can bond over your favourite books and love of literature. Libraries often promote local businesses, so you can also find out more about local artists, businesses, and even book clubs. And the librarian probably has an abundance of useful information and recommendations. Just let them know what you’re looking for and they can help you to find the right book or answer to any questions you may have.

F. We all need a bit of personal space, and the library can provide the quiet reprieve you need. It’s a great place for reading, working, researching, or just relaxing. There are always comfy chairs and corners at the library where you can enjoy a great new book and expand your mind. The library is brightly lit, so you won’t have to squint your eyes to see the words on the page. Add that to the cool environment, quiet atmosphere, and endless rows of books, and you’ve got a very calming way to relieve stress and relax.

G. Most importantly, once you become a member of your local library, you can rent all the books your heart desires. You can borrow the books for free from your library. Knowing that you need to return the book can also encourage you to finish the book by the return date. Be honest, after reading a book once, you probably won’t read it again. So, it will just take up space on your bookshelf and gather dust. Instead, you can rent a book in any genre, read it, and return it for free.

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Ответ: 2865417
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Задача 14

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Reliable dental remedies
2. The journey to modern-day clocks
3. A simple piece of equipment
4. Gratitude for having invented
5. An endless youthful look
6. Uncovered by archaeologists
7. Appeared in ancient Egypt
8. All new is well overlooked old

Тексты

A. Although it is often taught that the Roman Empire had the first system of government, that is actually just the first record of government in the West. The very first governmental structure is credited to the early ancient Egyptians. Even more surprising, this political system did not surround the pharaoh as many believe. Until around 1570 BC, ancient Egypt was ruled by kings. During the predynastic period King Narmer came to power and established the first central government within their preexisting borders.

B. Until the time of government policies and economic standing, there was no need to keep track of days. Due to their irrigation systems, the ancient Egyptians also needed to figure out when the Nile was going to flood. Thus, they created the 365-day calendar. Originally, the calendar had 370 days until they realized they needed a shortened year and merely added leap years. So if you were born on a day that only occurs in a leap year, (are actually only 20), you have the good old Egyptians to thank.

C. Ancient Egyptians realized the toll their teeth were taking and discovered a simple solution to this problem. The first form of toothpaste was invented by the Egyptians using an almost nauseating list of ingredients such as crushed ox hooves, ashes, and burned eggshells. Along with toothpaste came mints. They had a less unsettling ingredient list that included rock salt, dried mint, and dried iris. In fact, multiple recipe lists from ancient Egypt have been discovered. This simple invention saved the lives of many people at the time.

D. Ancient Egyptians developed a form of writing never seen before. They would soak the ends of long pieces of reed in water and then cut the ends into points, causing them to crack and dispense the ink. However, they soon learned that these pens dried out quickly, which led to the use of quills. It was not until the late 1800s that society returned to the first Egyptian idea and developed the modern- day ballpoint pen, including a cap this time to prevent them from drying out as quickly.

E. Being late to work was a problem even for the ancient Egyptians as they, too, had clocks. A sundial was the earliest form of clock, but they only worked with a clear sky. This led to the invention of the water clock. It worked by slowly dripping water throughout the day, making it possible to tell time indoors. From there, they made portable shadow clocks. These devices had such an impact on daily life in ancient Egypt that everyone was fascinated by the idea.

F. A common misconception is that Leonardo da Vinci invented scissors. In reality, the original design was created as far back as 1500 BC. Although the Romans engineered the cross-blade design we know today, the ancient Egyptians had a simpler but effective version. It was a single piece of metal fashioned into two blades that were controlled by a metal strip between the blades. With the invention of scissors, ancient Egyptians could cut their hair into different styles. Even the most skilled hair stylist could not replicate those without a good pair of shears.

G. If you have ever seen a depiction of ancient Egyptians, it will come as no surprise that they were very particular about their appearance. Not only did they create makeup, wigs, and hair extensions, but they also developed the first hair dying technique. Hair was not only for looks but for displaying your social status. The better you kept your hair, the wealthier you were. Gray hair did not fit this ideal. So they started using dried henna leaves to create a reddishbrown paste that dyed the hair.

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Ответ: 7418235
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Задача 15

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. From the history of the place
2. The easiest route
3. How it was formed
4. A strange form
5. Difficult to reach
6. The future of the language
7. The rarest language
8. Great scenery

Тексты

A. Known as sfyria, it’s one of the most endangered languages in the world – a mysterious form of long-distance communication in which entire conversations, no matter how complex, can be whistled. For the last two millennia, the only people who have been able to sound and understand sfyria’s secret notes are the shepherds and farmers from this hillside hamlet, each of whom has proudly passed down the tightly guarded tradition to their children.

B. Situated in the southern Aegean Sea, Santorini is a small, circular group of five Cycladic islands, made up of main island Thera; Therasia and Aspronisi at the periphery; and the two lava islands. All five surround a colossal, mostly drowned caldera, a bowl-shaped crater that forms when the mouth of a volcano collapses. But during the Bronze Age, approximately 5,000 years ago, Santorini was a single volcanic landmass called Stronghyle (which means ‘round’ in Greek), and one that played a crucial role in shaping history.

C. Left Bank is a portrait of the overlapping generations born between 1905 and 1930, who lived, loved, fought, played and flourished in Paris between 1940 and 1950 and whose intellectual and artistic output still influences how we think, live, and even dress today. After the horrors of war that shaped and informed them, Paris was the place where the world’s most original voices of the time tried to find an independent and original alternative to the capitalist and Communist models for life, arts, and politics - a ‘Third Way’.

D. In 1890, a local girl named Minna fell in love with a young chocolate maker named Wilhelm. Minna’s father forbade her from seeing Wilhelm, so the two started secretly exchanging handwritten letters by leaving them in a knothole in the oak’s trunk. A year later, Minna’s father finally granted her permission, and the two were wed on 2 June 1891 under the oak tree’s branches. The story of the couple’s fairy-tale courtship spread, and soon, hopeful romantics who had no luck finding partners in ballrooms began writing love letters to the Bridegroom’s Oak.

E. There are countless waterfalls along the Road to Hana, so how do you pick? The easiest way is to decide how much time and effort you’re willing to put into each one. My personal favorite for everyone is Upper Waikini Falls (aka 3 Bears Waterfall). This is a great waterfall because there’s a good vantage point from the road – meaning minimal investment of time or effort. But, it’s also a short and not too difficult hike back to the waterfall.

F. If walking a few steps to a large lookout, getting zen in a garden, or floating around in a pool is too low energy for you, why not try seeing the falls from above? Reserve a spot on one of the Umauma Ziplining tours, and you’re in for a high flying, rootin’ tootin’ good time. 9 ziplines…adding up to 2 miles of flying…over 14 waterfalls… along the Umauma River. As if ziplining isn’t enough, you’ll have stunning jungle, river, and even ocean views.

G. One of the largest islands in Croatia, Cres is an island packed with adventure. Its great beaches, hiking trails, ancient villages and excellent camping are second to none. With its large size and small population you really feel off the beaten path when exploring Cres. This is because it’s not always convenient to get to. The most frequent ferry route leaves from Brestova which is an hour south of Rij eka. Luckily, it’s an extremely scenic drive down to Brestova with sweeping scapes of Kvarner Bay.

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Задача 16

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Types of dwellings
2. Fighting an infectious enemy
3. Having lived alongside the dinosaurs
4. Laying scent behind
5. Homeless warriors
6. Having specific jobs
7. Defence in exchange
8. Wonderful bodies

Тексты

A. Ants evolved some 130 million years ago at the end of the Jurassic. Most fossil evidence of insects is found in lumps of ancient amber, or fossilized plant resin. The oldest known ant fossil, a primitive and now extinct ant species, was found in Cliffwood Beach, New Jersey. Though that fossil only dates back 92 million years, another fossil ant that proved nearly as old has a clear lineage to ants of present day. This suggests a much longer evolutionary line than previously assumed.

B. Ants use their tiny size to their advantage. Relative to their size, their muscles are thicker than those of larger animals or even humans. This ratio enables them to produce more force and carry larger objects. If you had muscles in the proportions of ants, you'd be able to heave a Hyundai over your head! In certain ant species, the soldier ants have modified heads, shaped to match the nest entrance. They block access to the nest by sitting just inside the entrance, with their heads functioning like a cork in a bottle.

C. Ant plants are plants with naturally occurring hollows where ants can take shelter or feed. These cavities may be hollow thorns, stems, or even leaf petioles. The ants live in the hollows, feeding on sugary plant secretions or the excretions of sap-sucking insects. What do the plants get for providing such luxurious accommodations? The ants defend the plant from herbivorous mammals and insects, and may even prune away parasitic plants that attempt to grow on the host plant.

D. By following a scent given off by scout ants from their colony, foraging ants can gather and store food efficiently. A scout ant first leaves the nest in search of food, and wanders somewhat randomly until it discovers something edible. It will then consume some of the food and return to the nest in a straight, direct line. It seems these scout ants can observe and recall visual cues that enable them to navigate quickly back to the nest. Along the return route, the scout ant leaves specifi c scents that will guide her nestmates to the food.

E. Ant colonies come in literally all shapes and sizes. A few species live in colonies of only a few dozen ants; however, the average ant colony contains thousands of individual ants. Smaller colonies live in natural openings while larger colonies create vast nests and forage for supplies and food. There are also super colonies around the world that can contain more than 300 million individuals. These super colonies have been identified in Japan, Australia, the United States, and southern Europe.

F. Perhaps the strangest ant fact, there is a species of fungus that infects ants and takes control of their bodies. However, social insects have evolved collective disease defenses to try and control epidemics in their colonies. So, for example, they groom one another and they use anti-microbial substances to prevent individuals which come into contact with pathogens. In a full colony set up that can very quickly lead to a sort of huge mass break out of the disease, there is zero disease transmission because of special behaviours.

G. Not all ant species build nests. A group of about 200 species known as army ants have two phases of their life: nomad and stationary. During the colony's nomad phase, the ants travel all day, attacking other colonies and insects. At night, they build a temporary nest and keep moving the next morning. The only time they stop traveling is when the queen lays eggs and the colony waits for them to hatch. During this time, the worker ants make a nest out of their own bodies to protect the queen, the food, and the eggs.

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Задача 17

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Mutual evolution
2. Ancient recipes
3. Balanced usage
4. Precious knowledge
5. Dangerous tendency
6. Caution above all
7. Linguistically proved
8. Divine directions

Тексты

A. Humans have evolved with herbs and plants for hundreds of thousands of years. Using herbal medicine brings harmony and balance back to the body, because it allows the body to be just as responsible for the healing as the plant. Using harsh, synthetic chemical compounds, which have only been around for a hundred years or so (and have not usually been properly tested for long term safety), comes with the mentality that the body is a broken machine and needs to be fixed.

B. Before there was modern-day medicine and its pharmacopeia of synthetic drugs, there were plants, and ancient civilizations knew how to use them strategically to treat common ailments and even life-threatening diseases. The ancient Egyptian Ebers Papyrus, a scroll from 1550 BC that's over 100 pages long, details 700 medicinal herbs and how to use them. The Greek Corpus Hippocraticum from the 16th century BC also details the use of herbal medicine. Later, during the 1800s and early 1900s, the knowledge of herbal medicine was passed down from one generation to the next.

C. Paracelsus (1493-1541) was one of the proponents of chemically prepared drugs out of raw plants and mineral substances; nonetheless, he was a firm believer that the collection of those substances ought to be astrologically determined. He continuously emphasized his belief in observation, and simultaneously supported the “Signatura doctrinae”—the signature doctrine. According to this belief, God designated his own sign on the healing substances, which indicated their application for certain diseases. For example, the hazelwort is reminiscent of the liver; thus, it must be beneficial for liver diseases.

D. Modern day medicine is actually very different from the ancient concepts and understanding of medicine. This is clear from the fact that the first medical schools were based on the use of herbs and plants as medicines. The word “drug” that we so commonly use to refer to medicines these days actually comes from a Dutch word “droog” which means “dry” or “to dry”. This fact reveals that ancient healers used to dry herbs and plants so that they could be used as medicines.

E. Of all the components which comprise the current day pharmacopoeia, seven thousand are taken from plants. To understand the importance of herbal medicine, it is first important to learn a little bit about plants. Every plant on the planet creates specific chemical compounds which is a basic part of their metabolic function. These main metabolites may include fats or sugars, as well as metabolites which are found in a lower number of plants, but which are contained within a specific species.

F. Herbs are trophorestorative and this means that they work on the deepest levels to bring about healing and also bring about vitality. Through scientific research it has been found that plants bring about benefits to us by transferring genetic information to our bodies. This in a true sense means ‘deep healing’. However, it is a fact that one must try out herbal medicines and treatments only after doctor’s consultation and advice. Even simple therapies like cranberry extract may first need a nod from the doctor to be taken.

G. Some will argue that species would go extinct even without human interference. While that’s certainly true, it’s the rate that plants are dying off that raises alarm. Thanks to climate change, deforestation and other human-influence factors, experts believe that species are going extinct somewhere between 1,000 and 10,000 times faster than they would naturally. Since plants can’t just up and move as their habitat is being destroyed, they are even more vulnerable than endangered animals. It is happening too quickly.

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Задача 18

Установите соответствие между текстами A–F и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Making workouts better
2. Going the wrong way
3. Improving memory
4. Struggling with insomnia
5. Clues for the audience
6. Distracting while behind the wheel
7. Reducing stress
8. A faster recovery

Тексты

A. When we hear a familiar song, we are often able to recall a moment from our past that is connected to that tune. Favorite songs tickle our memory in various ways and it shows that music is easily ingrained in our memory. Music has been found to stimulate parts of the brain, and studies have demonstrated that music enhances the memory. For example, scores on memory tests are improved when people listen to classical music. It’s possible, then, to use music to help students retain information and enhance learning.
B. For some athletes and for many people who run, jog, cycle, lift weights and otherwise exercise, music is not superfluous—it is essential to peak performance and a satisfying workout. When music is used before athletic activity, it has been shown to improve the performance of simple tasks. When music is used during activity, it has work-enhancing and psychological effects. Listening to music during exercise can both increase physical capacity and improve energy efficiency. So make a playlist just for the gym or for working out.
C. Since the time of early man, music has been a part of human culture. In nursing, Florence Nightingale used music as part of the healing process for soldiers under her care during the war. The first formal music therapy program in the United States was established in 1944, at Michigan State University. The various musical elements of rhythm, melody, harmony, and tempo stimulate an emotional response that comprises the affective component of pain, which helps to positively affect mood and results in improved healing.
D. Listening to music can have a tremendously relaxing effect on our minds and bodies, especially slow, quiet classical music. This type of music can have a beneficial effect on our physiological state, slowing the pulse and heart rate, lowering blood pressure. Music, in short, can act as a powerful stress management tool in our lives. When people are very stressed, there is a tendency to avoid listening to music actively. So it just takes a small effort to begin with.
E. Slow and quiet music can lead to better sleep. It’s scientifically proved that listening to some kinds of music can cure insomnia. Meditative melodies activates specific brain arias and help to calm thoughts and be in the state of deep relaxation and sleeping.
F. Music and driving have gone together since the first car radio was introduced around 1930. What would a road trip be without tunes? Having a phone conversation while driving is highly distracting, and we all know texting while driving is even worse. So listening to music may be distracting too. Any device that causes you to glance away from the road for several seconds should be avoided. Excessively loud music can prevent you from hearing sirens or horns.
G. If we step back and think about it, music is one of the most peculiar conventions in movies. No one questions that music should be a part of movies because we’ve all grown used to the idea that, in a movie, when something happens, we should hear music in the background. Of course, no one has a soundtrack accompanying their real lives. The most obvious way music scores are used is to guide the emotional response of the audience.

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Задача 19

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Areas of usage
2. Debate about privacy
3. Not easy to fly
4. Changing the reality
5. Witnessing explosive growth
6. Evolving law regulations
7. New records on the way
8. Putting humans out of work

Тексты

A. There are countless uses for drone technology. Drones can help meteorologists track storms, spying on the systems as they evolve without risking human life to do it, both in the air and underwater. The energy industry also uses drone technology. Drones can be programmed to inspect high power lines, peruse miles of oil and gas pipelines, and check out wind turbines and solar panels for possible problems. Drones are used to monitor wildlife populations, especially threatened and endangered species. They are also monitoring illegal fishing.
B. A drone may look like a simple machine, but a lot of calculations go into making it fly. Pilots who fly planes have to undergo years of training. On the other hand, a new entrant to the world of drone-flying has to learn to fly on the go. Flying can lead to a lot of nasty and expensive crashes. To avoid this problem, most drones have inbuilt software to help them fly. Semi-autonomous drones that can follow you are already best sellers in the marketplace.
C. When most people think of drones, they imagine drone enthusiasts flying a machine in the park or in their backyards. But drones have been enthusiastically embraced by many professional sectors as well. The military use drones almost as big as cars to transport inventory and keep an eye on hostile territories. Delivery services make use of large drones to deliver any number of parcels. Drones have also been a godsend for photographers and filmmakers, since they are used to take breathtakingly clear shots. Finally, the agriculture industry uses drones to inspect fields.
D. Again, if you’re only familiar with recreational drones, you might think they all move the way helicopters do, in lazy zig-zag patterns that could never compete with the speed of an airplane. But the best drones on the market can achieve impressive speeds that can even rival the fastest of birds. Racing drones that are built specifically for speed commonly move at around 120 km/h. There is also work being done on developing a new breed of racer drones that can reach speeds of more than 185 km/h.
E. A machine that can fly anywhere and record anything? You know the law enforcement agencies are going to try everything they can to incorporate drones into their activities. Several models of surveillance drones have already been developed and deployed in cities around the world to monitor the streets and record any unlawful activities taking place. While the police have been quick to embrace drone tech, human rights activists have pointed out just how badly the powers of a drone can be abused to spy on people.
F. Drones are getting more popular with each passing year. They are still a relatively new category of machines, and thus most countries are still trying to understand how their presence will affect the lives of civilians, and what rules have to be made to protect the people’s interests when faced with drone activity. For instance, commercial drones have been banned from areas which experience heavy air traffic in the form of airplanes and helicopters.
G. Today, the use of drones in the commercial sector is handicapped by their relatively smaller size, short battery life, and high price margins. But rapid research is being done for creating a new breed of worker drones that will be able to fly for days, and carry heavy loads while still being affordable. Once these drones arrive on the market, they will inevitably take the place of most, if not all, delivery workers. Improved GPS systems and obstacle-avoidance programs help ensure these drones are able to navigate crowded public areas while delivering goods.

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Задача 20

Установите соответствие между текстами A–G и заголовками 1–8. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании один заголовок лишний. Запишите выбранные цифры под соответствующими буквами.

Заголовки

1. Active religious temple
2. Mixture of styles
3. The longest cemetery
4. Carried across the ocean
5. Gigantic in many aspects
6. Having counterparts in Egypt
7. Featuring ancient statues
8. Not very popular with tourists

Тексты

A. Teotihuacan is one of the largest cities of ancient world located in Mexico. The marvelous constructions that were found within this place were built in time span of 100 BC and still remain one of the greatest man made wonders. The amazing pyramid of Sun at Teotihuacan has same base areas as that of great pyramid of Giza, having only half of height of pyramid of Giza. The ancient pyramids found at Teotihuacan were built using rubble and bricks.
B. Karnak temple is one of the largest religious complexes ever discovered; It is located in south Cairo, Egypt. Archaeologists estimated that this ancient building was constructed during 1390 – 1350 BC. It is the second most visited religious historical place of the country just after great pyramid of Giza; great temple of Amun stands as most important among this complex. The entire complex of Karnak temple was built by using only sandstone. Remarkable statues of ancient Egypt still stand in this complex.
C. Angor Wat is one of the largest religious and world heritage listed temples located in Kambodia. This most attractive religious site was built in 1150 by king Khmer. Anghor Wat temple along with many other historical attractions within this area makes one of the most favorite tourist places of the country. This temple is still used by Buddhists, earlier it belonged to Hindus. It features marvelous carving of 3000 heavenly nymphs upon the outer walls and large scale scenes from Ramayana and Mahabharata on inner walls.
D. Easter Island is world’s most isolated inhabited island located in north Pacific region of Chile. This treeless island of Chile is one of the most important archaeological sites of the world. The ancients sculptures called mois are the important attraction within this island. The extinct volcanoes also became key attraction of this site but still it is least visited by the tourists. Mois statues were carved using the stones from extinct volcano of Easter Island by ancient people of rapa nui between the period of 1250 to 1500.
E. Colosseum of Rome is the largest amphitheater in the world. It was built in 70 AD using concrete and stones in Roman architecture style. There are 80 entrances and a capacity of 50000 spectators within Colosseum of Rome. In ancient time Colosseum was used for hosting games between people and animals. It took more than 9 years to complete the work of Colosseum. The dangerous natural disasters like earthquakes made huge change within appearance of Colosseum.
F. Christ the Redeemer is the one of modern man made wonders of the world; it is located on Corcovado hills in Rio De Janeiro. In fact Christ the Redeemer statue, constructed in France piece by piece and transported to Rio De Janeiro, was completed in the year 1931. The 98 feet tall statue was constructed using thousands of tons of concrete. The stones used for the construction of the pedestal of this statue were imported from Sweden. It is the 5th largest statue of Jesus Christ in the world.
G. Great Wall of China is the world’s longest construction ever made by man. The 8851 km long wall of China was built 2000 years ago by king Quin Shi Huang. Though, Great Wall of China is not at all continuous one, constructed in different sections. It is mainly constructed using stones, bricks and wood. It is the only man made structure on the Earth that can be seen from the Moon. More than one million people have lost their lives during the construction of this wall.

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