Задание 11. Чтение. Понимание структурно-смысловых связей в тексте.. ЕГЭ 2020 по английскому языку

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Задачи для практики

Задача 1

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

There’s one letter in the alphabet that almost no one can write. It’s a letter everyone can read, but a new study finds A _________________. The lowercase letter “g” has two forms: the “opentail” one most people use, and the “looptail” form commonly seen in print and online in fonts such as Times New Roman.

Researchers from Johns Hopkins University found that B __________________ , most people can’t write it or even correctly identify when it’s on its own.

“We think that if we look at something enough, especially C __________________ as we do during reading, then we would know what it looks like,” Michael McCloskey, the study’s senior author, said in a news release. “But our results suggest that’s not always the case.” When presented with four versions of it ― three of them incorrect ― 7 out of 25 people were able to pick the right “g.”

“We would say: ‘There’re two forms of g. Can you write them?’ And people would look at us and just stare for a moment because they had no idea,” Kimberly Wong, a junior undergraduate at Johns Hopkins, said in a news release. “Once you really nudged them on, D __________________ , some would still insist there is no second g.”

In yet another experiment, 16 people were given a paragraph that showed the looptail g 14 times. Respondents were asked to speak each word aloud, then researchers requested E __________________.

Half wrote the opentail form anyway, and while the rest attempted the looptail g, only one wrote it correctly. “Our findings give us an intriguing way of looking at questions about F __________________ ,” McCloskey said.

  1. while everyone can read the looptail g just fine
  2. insisting there are two types of g
  3. children have some reading disadvantage
  4. that almost no one can write it
  5. the importance of writing for reading
  6. that they write the letter
  7. if we have to pay attention to its shape
Решение
Ответ: 417265
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Задача 2

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

There’s a new kind of teacher in class. And it isn’t a human. It’s a humanoid robot. In a prep class at Glendal Primary in Glen Waverley, Victoria, the robot on the teaching staff is 30cm tall and helps improve the preps’ speaking and listening skills. The robot can also dance to the Village People’s song.

Now grade 5 students at Glendal are working on programming the robot A __________________. Students must introduce themselves, wait until the robot’s eyes turn blue and be patient while it speaks before answering in a loud and clear voice, B________________. Jessie, 10, has been programming the robot to teach the preps how to better communicate, C__________________.

In fact, robots are already teaching in a few classrooms around the world. In a primary school in Tampere, Finland, the new language teacher, Elias, is a robot. Elias, like the Glendal robot, can dance. Its specialty is Gangnam Style.

The 30cm-high robot is able to understand and speak 23 languages and uses software D ___________________________. In Elias’ trial in its current school, however, it communicates in English, Finnish and German only. The robot recognises the pupil’s skill levels to ask harder or easier questions. It also gives feedback to teachers.

Some of the human teachers who have worked with the robots see it E ___________________.

Elias is one of four robots being tested in classrooms in this part of Finland. There’s a maths robot, used in three schools, called OVObot. They are all blue, about 25cm high and look like owls.

The aim of the trial is to see F _____________________.

So, far the feedback from students in Elias the language robot’s class in Finland has been positive.

  1. otherwise they get no reply
  2. as a new way to get children interested in learning
  3. if the robots can improve the quality of teaching
  4. but she believes it’s only the beginning
  5. to have conversations with the school’s youngest pupils
  6. the robot would improve students’ technology skills
  7. that allows it to understand students’ needs and encourages learning
Решение
Ответ: 514723
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Задача 3

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

Shakespeare’s plays display countless themes, some of which develop through the body of plays as a whole. The idea, though, that people, events and things in our world are often not what they seem, A __________________ . Indeed, some of the plays, for example ‘A Midsummer Night’s Dream‘ and ‘The Tempest’, are largely about the confusion between what is real and what is not. This theme of appearance and reality is one B __________________.

What is appearance and reality? Well, as Shakespeare himself put it: ‘All that glisters is not gold.’ At its most simple level, the way some characters appear to the other characters on the one hand and the way C __________________ on the other is often different. Iago in ‘Othello’ conceals his real nature behind a facade of honesty and is trusted by all, whereas, in his dealings with everyone D __________________.

The characters in Shakespeare’s plays often wear masks. The stage convention was that E __________________ no-one would recognise him or her, so characters could appear to a friend as a stranger, or as anonymous, or hide his or her identity for any other purpose.

Several characters conceal their true identity behind disguises. The Duke of Kent, for example, banished by King Lear, determines to stay with him and look after him: he disguises himself as a servant. The device of disguise is highly dramatic and Shakespeare exploited it to the full.

One of Shakespeare’s favourite tricks was to disguise a girl as a boy. Probably the two most famous are Viola in ‘Twelfth Night’ and Rosalind in ‘As You Like It’. In those cases everyone is deceived, F _______________.

  1. they appear to the audience
  2. if a character was wearing a mask
  3. he is manipulative and remorseless
  4. is at the heart of all the plays
  5. as the action developed
  6. that runs through many of Shakespeare’s plays
  7. regarding appearance as the reality
Решение
Ответ: 461327
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Задача 4

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

The last time I hosted a workshop, the session was recorded so that attendees could access the material later. A __________________, I was shocked at how many instances I had uttered um. I couldn’t consciously remember using this filler word, but I knew that to become a more effective presenter, I had to eliminate it from my public speaking.

And I’m not alone. Nearly everyone at some point has used fillers when speaking; it’s a reality B __________________. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, fillers have been part of mankind’s fabric for centuries. ‘Hum’ dates back to 1469, with ‘hem’, ‘haw’ and ‘er’ C __________________. All may have been used well before there were written transcripts. Every language has its own version of ‘um’, too. For example, in Russian, people use ‘eh’ and in French, ‘euh’.

But what causes us to use these fillers? Do they serve an important language function? Or do anxiety and nervousness play a vital role? According to experts, it’s a little of both.

General anxiety makes us extremely uncomfortable with silence D __________________. In this case, the fillers are our futile attempt to keep everyone’s attention. We are thinking as we speak and, therefore, need to buy time to find the right words.

Many professional speaking coaches suggest silence is more powerful. Silence can also be a great service to your listeners because E ________________. We need pauses in order F ________________ . So, the big question is this: Can we stop ourselves from using fillers? If so, how?

The simplest technique is envisioning punctuation as we talk. Imagine putting an invisible period on the end of your sentences while you speak. Imagine that you can see periods or commas in your speech as you’re speaking.

  1. that’s been prevalent throughout history
  2. to digest and process the information
  3. our brains are always a few beats behind during a speech
  4. when we are speaking in front of people
  5. to be an instant cure for some people.
  6. when I played the recording for myself
  7. first appearing in print in 1526, 1679 and 1862
Решение
Ответ: 617432
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Задача 5

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

Green tea has been used as a health-promoting drink by various cultures around the world for thousands of years. It’s high antioxidant and nutrient levels make it beneficial to the body in many ways and research is now showing A __________________. In laboratories around the globe, green tea is sparking tremendous excitement B __________________.

Green tea is consumed routinely in Asian populations, C __________________ that are prevalent in Western society. Given the huge scientific literature supporting the positive role of green tea in preventing diseases, not to mention its benefits in helping to prevent cancer and other diseases, as well as its lack of toxicity, there is ample reason D __________________ .

Unlike coffee, tea does not seem E __________________ . I know many more people who think that tea is beneficial, much more so than coffee. As with coffee, a fairly large number of studies have looked at associations between tea and health.

Tea has been associated with a lower risk of depression. An analysis of 11 studies with almost 23,000 participants found that for every three cups of tea consumed per day, F __________________.

I wouldn’t strongly recommend that anyone take up tea based on these findings. But there seem to be some potential benefits, and there don’t seem to be harms. Drink it if you like it. It, too, seems to be a completely reasonable addition to a healthful diet.

  1. for consuming green tea on a regular basis
  2. the relative risk of depression decreased 37 percent
  3. that it can promote a healthy weight and support the brain
  4. as new health applications keep being discovered
  5. than three cups of tea a day
  6. who have greater longevity and lower mortality rates for diseases
  7. to generate negative perceptions
Решение
Ответ: 346172
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Задача 6

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

Few would doubt that dogs can feel basic emotions like happiness and fear. Then there are more complex emotions, like shame and guilt, A __________________. Dog owners often claim to know when their pets have committed an offense just by looking at them. But by setting up an experiment in which owners were misinformed about whether their dogs had eaten a forbidden treat, the scientists discovered B __________________. Even dogs that had obeyed a command displayed the guilty look C __________________. It doesn’t mean dogs are incapable of guilt, but the research showed that what people interpret D __________________.

Empathy is another complex emotion, and there is some evidence E __________________. Psychologists have claimed that contagious yawning is linked to empathy in humans—those who yawn back are thought to be empathizing with the initial yawner’s feelings of boredom, fatigue or stress. Humans, chimpanzees and baboons all pass yawns to members of their own species, and according to one study, dogs can catch yawns from humans—but not all humans. The tested dogs tended to yawn after their owners did, but were immune to the yawns of strangers, F __________________ to the people they cared about most.

Other research has hinted that dogs can read human emotions. A recent study suggests they are also skilled at discerning the emotions of other dogs. They can match playful-sounding barks to photos of play faces, and aggressive barks to scowling faces, with great accuracy.

  1. as a guilty dog face is actually fear of scolding
  2. when dogs looked at photos
  3. which are harder to pin down in animals
  4. that dogs can feel it
  5. that those so-called guilty looks might mean something else
  6. suggesting they had stronger emotional connections
  7. if they were reprimanded by their owners
Решение
Ответ: 357146
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Задача 7

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

Explorers and travelers throughout history have had to develop methods for preserving food and A __________________. This problem was especially difficult during the time B __________________. Great explorers like Columbus, Magellan and Cook carried dried foods and foods preserved in salt and brine.

More recently, refrigeration and canning have provided solutions to the problem of food preservation. However, space travel required that new methods be devised for C __________________. Foods taken into space must be light-weight, compact, tasty and nutritious. They must also keep products D __________________. A variety of menus consisting of foods similar to those displayed here provided each astronaut with 2500 or more calories per day.

John Glenn was the first American to eat in space aboard Friendship 7 in 1962. At that time it was not known if ingestion and absorption of nutrients were possible in a state of zero gravity. Glenn's consumption of apple sauce, packed in a tube, and xylose sugar tablets with water, demonstrated E __________________ in a weightless environment.

In the weightless environment of space, astronauts exerted less energy in conducting their work than F __________________. Gemini astronauts were allotted 2500 calories a day during space missions, less than their normal intake of 3000 calories. The food, which had 99 percent of the moisture removed to reduce weight, had an average content of 17 percent protein, 32 percent fat, and 51 percent carbohydrates.

  1. keeping foods edible
  2. if they were on Earth
  3. for long periods without refrigeration
  4. carrying enough food for their journeys
  5. when he presented him with a beef sandwich
  6. that people could eat, swallow, and digest food
  7. when people made long sea voyages on sailing ships
Решение
Ответ: 471362
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Задача 8

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

Your days of playing games and streaming content when you should be working in class could be numbered A __________________ . The software is designed to watch over what’s showing on kids’ laptop screens B __________________ .

Some Australian schools are now testing the world-first program, which uses elaborate colour-coding to throw up a “red flag” on the teacher’s laptop C __________________.

It displays a graphic on the teacher’s laptop in real time showing where students are spending their time online. A red bar means a student is not working on the lesson, green shows they are on-task, blue shows they “likely to be on task” and conducting research, and orange means D __________________ .

Researchers have found that when students’ attention strays from lessons, boys spend 55 per cent of their time during lessons on gaming, 25 per cent streaming videos, 15 per cent on sports sites and 5 per cent streaming music in class. Girls are distracted 59 per cent of their time by streaming videos, 19 per cent on gaming, 7 per cent with celebrity news, another 7 per cent on social media and 8 per cent music streaming.

“We use computers every day and it is easy to become distracted — it’s a growing issue with kids getting off-task (in class),” a year 12 student, E __________________, said. Randwick’s Emanuel School has tested the program. Head of teaching and learning, Bianca Hewes, said it allowed her to see F __________________ .

  1. so teachers can monitor activity
  2. they could be sending an email or conducting a Google search
  3. who did not wish to be named
  4. with the introduction of a special software program into schools
  5. how much time students spent on specific tasks
  6. to improve academic results
  7. when a student goes off-task on their classroom computer
Решение
Ответ: 417235
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Задача 9

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

St Anne’s Academy is a little old-fashioned. The teachers are nuns in habits who write on blackboards with chalk. The Mass is all in Latin. And the writing is in cursive. At St Anne’s, cursive instruction starts in second grade A __________. Homework has to be done in cursive, and neatness counts. That’s probably why the little elementary and high school, with a total of 48 students, produces cursive champions such as Jack Lieberherr. Jack, a 15-year-old from North St Paul, was recently named the 2017 grand national champion for eighth-graders in the National Handwriting Contest. Writing, it seems, runs in Jack’s family. Jack also won the national championship as a sixth-grader and has several state handwriting titles as well. He has a brother and two sisters B_________________.

Careful cursive is quickly disappearing in an age C_______________________. Nowadays handwritten letters are a rarity and communication is dominated by keyboards, texting and touch screens. But the teachers at St Anne’s are old-school D _________________. And for good reasons, they say that it shows education. Cursive advocates worry that we’re raising a generation of young adults who won’t know how to sign their own names E _________________________. Four years ago, the Campaign for Cursive, a committee of the American Handwriting Analysis Foundation, started a ‘Cursive Is Cool’ contest. The contest requires the students to write “The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog” (which contains all the letters in the alphabet). Students then add a few sentences in their own words about F __________. The national winners are selected based on things such as size, shape, spacing and slant of the letters.

  1. where signatures are conveyed digitally
  2. when it comes to writing
  3. about a dozen more are debating the issue
  4. how handwriting makes them a better reader and writer
  5. who also have won state titles in the contest
  6. or won’t be able to read original documents written in cursive
  7. and continues through eighth grade
Решение
Ответ: 751264
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Задача 10

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

The Origin of the Winter Olympics

The first organized international competition involving winter sports was introduced just five years after the birth of the modern Olympics in 1896. A __________________ this competition included athletes predominantly from Nordic countries. It was held eight times between 1901 and 1926, with the Swedish capital of Stockholm hosting all but one time. B __________________ for the first time in the 1908 Summer Games in London, although the skating competition was not actually held until October, some three months after the other events were over.

In 1911 a member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) suggested that Sweden C __________________ in Stockholm or stage a separate Winter Olympics in the same year. Concerned that such a move would jeopardize the Nordic Games, Sweden refused. Germany supported plans to stage a competition of winter events in early 1916 as part of the Olympic Games scheduled for Berlin later that year. However, the outbreak of World War I in 1914 caused the cancellation of the Berlin Olympics. Despite D __________________, winter sports returned to the Olympics for the 1920 Games in Antwerp, Belgium, where medals were awarded in figure skating and ice hockey.

Two years later an agreement was reached to celebrate an IOCsanctioned International Winter Sports Week. Held in Chamonix, France, in 1924, the event was a huge success. Norway topped the medals table with a total of 17, and the Nordic countries, which E __________________, dropped their previous objections. The Games staged in St. Moritz, Switzerland, in 1928 were formally designated the second Winter Olympics.

From 1928 the Winter Games were held every four years F __________________the Summer Games. Eventually, however, the increasing cost and logistic complications of the Olympics prompted IOC officials to alter the schedule. Only two years separated the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France, and the 1994 Games in Lillehammer, Norway.

  1. were each held at four-year intervals
  2. should either include winter sports in the 1912 Olympics
  3. known as the Nordic Games
  4. in the same calendar year as
  5. continuing protests from the Nordic countries
  6. altogether captured 30 of the 49 medals awarded
  7. figure skating was included in the Olympics
Решение
Ответ: 372564
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Задача 11

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

What do you think, Daddy? The English instructor said A___________. She did, truly. Those were her words. It doesn't seem possible, does it, considering the eighteen years of training that I've had? The aim of the John Grier Home (as you doubtless know and heartily approve of) is B_____________. The unusual artistic ability which I exhibit was developed at an early age C _____________ on the woodshed door.

I hope I don't hurt your feelings that when I criticize the home of my youth? But you have the upper hand, you know, for if I become too impertinent, you can always stop payment of your cheques. That isn't a very polite thing to say—but you can't expect me to have any manners; a foundling asylum isn't a young ladies' finishing school.

You know, Daddy, it isn't the work D _________________ . It's the play. Half the time I don't know what the girls are talking about; their jokes seem to relate to a past E _______________. I'm a foreigner in the world and I don't understand the language. It's a miserable feeling. I've had it all my life. At the high school the girls would stand in groups and just look at me. I was queer and diff erent and everybody knew it. I could FEEL 'John Grier Home' written on my face. And then a few charitable ones would make a point of coming up and saying something polite. I hated every one of them — the charitable ones most of all. Nobody here knows that I was brought up in an asylum. I told Sallie McBride that my mother and father were dead, and F _________________ which is entirely true so far as it goes.

  1. that my last paper shows an unusual amount of originality
  2. to turn the ninety-seven orphans into ninety-seven twins
  3. that a kind old gentleman was sending me to college
  4. that he tried to correct all my mistakes
  5. that is going to be hard in college
  6. through drawing chalk pictures of Mrs. Lippett
  7. that everyone but me has shared
Решение
Ответ: 126573
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Задача 12

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

Dear Kind-Trustee-Who-Sends-Orphans-to-College,

Here I am! I travelled yesterday for four hours in a train. It's a funny sensation, isn't it? I never rode in one before.

College is the biggest, most bewildering place—I get lost A_________________________. I will write you a description later B__________________; also I will tell you about my lessons. Classes don't begin until Monday morning, and this is Saturday night. But I wanted to write a letter first just to get acquainted.

It seems queer C_________________ you don't know. It seems queer for me to be writing letters at all—I've never written more than three or four in my life, so please overlook it D____________________.

Before leaving yesterday morning, Mrs. Lippett and I had a very serious talk. She told me how to behave all the rest of my life and especially E_______________ who is doing so much for me. I must take care to be Very Respectful.

But how can one be very respectful to a person who wishes to be called John Smith? Why couldn't you have picked out a name with a little personality? I might as well write letters to Dear Hitching-Post or Dear Clothes-Prop.

I have been thinking about you a great deal this summer; having somebody take an interest in me after all these years makes me feel as F__________________. It seems as though I belonged to somebody now, and it's a very comfortable sensation. I must say, however, that when I think about you, my imagination has very little to work upon. There are just three things that I know:
I. You are tall.
II. You are rich.
III. You hate girls.

  1. to be writing letters to somebody
  2. how to behave towards the kind gentleman
  3. though I had found a sort of family
  4. whenever I leave my room
  5. when I come to college
  6. if these are not a model kind
  7. when I'm feeling less muddled
Решение
Ответ: 471623
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Задача 13

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

In July 1450, a mysterious man known as Jack Cade led a huge force of common men from Kent into London A ______________ . This episode is generally regarded as being outside the bounds of the Wars of the Roses, but those edges are blurred and elastic.

When Jack Cade entered the capital, he struck the London Stone, B______________, and, according to Shakespeare, proclaimed: “Now is Mortimer lord of this city!” After this, Cade openly adopted the provocative name John Mortimer. The Mortimer line was considered by many C_______________, since the Mortimers were heirs apparent to Richard II – so adding weight to the later Yorkist claim to the throne. In 1460 Richard, Duke of York would trace his lineage from Edward III’s second surviving son, Lionel, Duke of Clarence, whose only daughter had married Edmund Mortimer. The House of Lancaster was descended from John of Gaunt, Edward III’s third son. The Mortimer Earls of March had been considered the lawful heirs of the childless Richard II before he was deposed, D_______________. Was Jack Cade a son of this deposed line seeking restitution?

Many would later claim E________________ to use the name ‘Mortimer’ to measure the response to it. Historians claimed that the object of the uprising was to place York upon the throne. Cade was called “an instrument of the Duke of York”.

Cade — who was captured F_____________ — is a fascinating, elusive figure. Was he a genuine claimant to the throne, a social campaigner, or a puppet?

  1. to be senior to the Lancastrian line
  2. that Richard, Duke of York had arranged for Cade
  3. and fatally wounded following the failure of his rebellion
  4. to protest against the ailing government of the Lancastrian king Henry VI
  5. that he could create such an imaginary world
  6. and the Lancastrian kings eyed them with suspicion
  7. which can still be seen on Cannon Street
Решение
Ответ: 471623
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Задача 14

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

When a damaged bow forced Steven Callahan out of a sailing race in 1982, his problems were just beginning. He docked for repairs, A____________ , and hours later his boat was smashed by a surfacing whale. He abandoned the sinking ship for a raft about 450 miles west of the Canary Islands. Callahan survived a staggering two-and-a-half months at sea, lost, but not completely so. In the 77 days B_________________ , he tracked his movements and positions using the sky. Using three pencils tied together, he tracked his course over 2,897 kilometers and was only off by one degree.

It's what sailors have been doing forever. Navigation requires landmarks, and in the open sea, the landmarks are celestial – sun, moon, planets, and stars. Before GPS, C___________________ , those who ventured across oceans found their way by looking up.

At night, they used mostly stars – individual stars and larger constellations with known positions in the sky and in relation to one another. Sailors and other navigators tracked them out of necessity. The ancient astronomers D___________________ did it out of love.

Star navigation is actually pretty straightforward, on a clear night, E___________________. Stars are navigational landmarks because they're constants. Sure, they appear to move as the Earth rotates, but their actual positions and their orientations with regard to other stars never changes. So if you can see them, they can point the way. All you need is your eyes, your brain and your body F______________ where you are and where you're headed. Tools like compasses, sextants and maps make it easier and more accurate; GPS receivers make it mindless. Why bother, then, learning the natural approach? Because compasses break. Maps get lost. GPS receivers malfunction — or just get it wrong.

  1. before a fishing boat spotted him near the Caribbean Islands
  2. to get a pretty accurate reading on
  3. if you know what to look for
  4. because the universe is a great
  5. who started mapping them at least 5,000 years ago
  6. headed back into the Atlantic alone
  7. before even the compass
Решение
Ответ: 617532
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Задача 15

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

The survey, released Thursday, polled 66,040 people from 68 countries across the, and asked respondents: “In general, do you personally feel very happy, happy, neither happy nor unhappy, unhappy, or very unhappy about your life?” According to the survey, 87 percent of Colombians polled said they were happy, and only 2 percent said they were unhappy, A __________________. So what’s Colombia’s secret to happiness?

After all, this isn’t the first time B __________________. While the survey didn’t go into the particulars of what made some countries happier than others, there are some ideas of C __________________.

At the tip of the South American continent, Colombia’s location gives its inhabitants and tourists unique access to both the Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean. Apart from its renowned tropical beaches and tropical grasslands, the country can off er visitors a chance D __________________.

While many know the country as a tropical paradise due to its location near the Equator, its rich ecosystems are possibly due to its varied climate zones. There are no striking seasonal changes throughout the year E __________________. Best of all, about 86 percent of the country has the tropical climate known and loved by those wishing to visit a sunny paradise.

Since 1974, on Sundays and national holidays the country’s capital closes it’s usually congested main roads F __________________. The capital city, Bogotá, has the most extensive network of cycle routes in Latin America and is a competitive force for the top spot in the world.

  1. to give Bogotá’s residents a chance to walk, run, bike, etc.
  2. and Colombia’s temperature varies based on elevations and rainfall
  3. that they organize all of them and participate in each one
  4. why Colombia reigns supreme in the happiness department
  5. to explore the Amazon rainforest, climb the Andes or Sierra Nevada mountains
  6. Colombia has topped the list
  7. giving them a “net happiness score” of 85 percent
Решение
Ответ: 764521
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Задача 16

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

Perfectionism, after all, is an ultimately self-defeating way to move through the world. It is built on an excruciating irony: A ________________. It also makes you better at your career and relationships and life in general. By avoiding mistakes at any cost, a perfectionist can make it B _______________.

But the drawback of perfectionism isn’t just that it holds you back from being your most successful, productive self. Perfectionistic tendencies have been linked to a laundry list of clinical issues: depression and anxiety, self-harm, social anxiety disorder and agoraphobia, obsessivecompulsive disorder, eating disorders, insomnia, hoarding, dyspepsia, chronic headaches, and, most damning of all, even early mortality and suicide. There are studies that suggest that the higher the perfectionism is, C __________________.

Though, culturally, we often see perfectionism as a positive trait. This is where perfectionism gets complicated — and controversial. Some researchers say there is adaptive, or ‘healthy’ perfectionism D __________________ versus a maladaptive, or ‘unhealthy’ version (when your best never seems good enough and not meeting goals frustrates you).

Perfectionists can make smooth sailing into a storm, a brief ill wind into a category-five hurricane. At the very least, they perceive it that way. And, because the ironies never end, the behaviours perfectionists adapt ultimately, actually, do make them more likely to fail.

Mental health problems aren’t just caused by perfectionism; E __________________ , too. One recent study, for example, found that over a one-year period, college students who had social anxiety were more likely to become perfectionists — but not vice versa.

It’s also been shown that one of the most robust protections against anxiety and depression is self-compassion — F __________________. And self-criticism, which perfectionists are so good at, predicts depression.

  1. characterised by having high standards, motivation and discipline
  2. the more psychological disorders a person is going to suffer
  3. the very thing that perfectionists lack
  4. making, and admitting, mistakes is a necessary part of growing and learning and being human
  5. as with all personality traits, there are different degrees of perfectionism
  6. harder to reach their own lofty goals
  7. some of these problems can lead to perfectionism
Решение
Ответ: 462173
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Задача 17

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

Mongolia is the country of Genghis Khan, the warrior who conquered the world on horseback. His story is full of wars, kidnappings, love and revenge. That’s just history. The legend begins with his death. Genghis Khan once ruled everything between the Pacific Ocean and the Caspian Sea. Upon his death he asked to be buried in secret. A grieving army carried his body home. When the emperor was finally laid to rest, his soldiers rode 1,000 horses over his grave A __________________.

In the 800 years since Genghis Khan’s death, no-one has found his tomb. But most interest in locating the tomb is international; Mongolians don’t want it found. The reluctance is often romanticised by foreign media as a curse, B __________________.

Beyond cultural pressures to honour Genghis Khan’s dying wish for secrecy, a host of technical problems hinder the search for his tomb. Mongolia is huge and underdeveloped — its landscape holds on to its secrets.

Folklore holds that Genghis Khan was buried on a peak in the Khentii Mountains called Burkhan Khaldun, C __________________. He had hidden from enemies on that mountain as a young man and pledged to return there in death.

With the tomb seemingly out of reach, why does it remain such a controversial issue in Mongolia? Genghis Khan is simply Mongolia’s greatest hero. The West recalls only what he conquered, D __________________. His empire connected East and West, allowing the Silk Road to flourish. His rule enshrined the concepts of diplomatic immunity and religious freedom. He established a reliable postal service and the use of paper money. Genghis Khan didn’t just conquer the world, E __________________.

In Mongolia he remains to this day a figure of enormous respect ‒ which is why Mongolians want his tomb to remain undisturbed: “If they’d wanted us to find it, F __________________.”

  1. he civilized it
  2. royal imagery also used by Genghis Khan and his descendants
  3. roughly 160 km north-east of Ulaanbaatar
  4. to destroy any remaining trace
  5. a belief that the world will end if Genghis Khan’s tomb is discovered
  6. they would have left some sign
  7. but Mongolians remember what he created
Решение
Ответ: 453716
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Задача 18

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

The name ‘Finland’ was not Finnish-born. In fact, the original Finnish alphabet didn’t even contain the letter ‘f’, A __________________. One theory is that the name ‘Finland’ comes from the Old English word ‘finna’, a general term once used to describe people from Scandinavia. However, some historians believe its origins are actually Swedish, where the words ‘finlonti’ and ‘finlandi’ are believed to have been used as early as the 12th century to describe the land that is now the south-western part of modern Finland.

Despite having being referred to by some variation of ‘Finland’ since medieval times, the Finns continue as they have for centuries, referring to their country, and themselves, as ‘Suomi’. It made me wonder: where did the name ‘Suomi’ come from, and B __________________?

There is no certain knowledge about the real origin of the name ‘Suomi’. One theory is that Suomi comes from word ‘suomaa’ which means ‘swampland’ in Finnish. The south-western part of the country is home to numerous lakes, C __________________. Another theory is that the word comes from ‘suomu’, which means ‘scale of a fish’, D __________________.

A third theory leads to Finnish Lapland in search of the Sami, a traditionally nomadic tribe of reindeer herders. Some linguists believe that both ‘Sami’ and ‘Suomi’ derive from the same proto-Baltic word, ‘źemē’, E __________________, and the people living on that land.

While traditionally Finland’s Sami identify themselves as Sami first and Finnish second, their connection to the land seemed similar to the importance Finns place on nature and their surroundings. Finland is regularly rated one of the most environmentally-friendly nations in the world and F __________________.

So is this bond with the land the cornerstone to Finnish – or Suomi, rather – identity?

  1. how does it fit into the modern Finnish identity
  2. which was introduced to the language through borrowed words
  3. explained that the name ‘Finland’ was not Finnish-born
  4. the country recently created its 40th national park
  5. suggesting that people in Finland wore clothes made out of fish skins
  6. which could have looked like swampland to outsiders
  7. which was used to refer to land or territory
Решение
Ответ: 216574
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Задача 19

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в поле ответа.

First discovered by the French chemist, Louis-Camille Maillard, back in 1912, it’s the most widely practiced chemical reaction on the planet. It happens in millions of kitchens every day, A _______________. Essentially, something delicious happens when you mix certain kinds of substances and heat them up. It turns the food brown and contributes to its flavour.

This reaction is responsible for the sweetness of coffee and the appetizing aroma of baked bread, chips, fried onions, barbecued meat, biscuits, toasted marshmallows, and most other foods B _____________. It’s one reason spices are fried or toasted before they’re used, and C _____________. Our attraction to them might be innately human, since they’re a special product of cooking and we’re the only species that can do this.

The problem is, the reaction can’t happen D ______________. You need to get the water content down to about 5% before the reaction takes place and you get all the nice cooked flavours and brown colour. This is why roast potatoes are usually brown on the outside and white on the inside. Microwaves work differently. Rather than heating the surrounding air, they bombard food with tiny, high-powered radio waves that heat up the molecules inside as they pass through. This way of cooking means the surface never gets hot or dry enough for the reaction to occur, E _______________.

Less honest manufacturers attempt to mask the lack of delicious browning F ____________________. Ever since being invented by accident in 1945 microwaves have been revolutionising how we eat. Supermarket lasagnes may never have that crispy topping that we crave, but science is making them more delicious every day.

  1. leading to disappointingly pale toppings on shepherd’s pies and lasagnas
  2. why there’s no comparison between roasted and boiled potatoes
  3. that can heat your ready meal in the oven
  4. if the food is too wet
  5. though very few people have heard of it
  6. by loading their products with salt, sugar and different spices
  7. that we find irresistible
Решение
Ответ: 572416
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Задача 20

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 лишняя. Запишите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений.

The telephone

Before the invention of the telephone instant communication over long distances was done by a wire-based electric system called the telegraph. Telegraph communication basically consisted of sending series of dots and dashes called Morse code A_________. Although this was a highly successful system back then, it was limited to sending one message at a time, which had to be decoded by an expert in Morse code before a reply could be formulated B________.

In the 1870s, two inventors both independently designed devices that could transmit speech electrically. Alexander Graham Bell was the first to patent his device first and he called it the telephone. Bell’s extensive knowledge of the nature of sound and his understanding of music enabled him C________. His idea was based on the principle that several notes could be sent simultaneously along the same wire if they were of differed pitches. Bell then paired up with a young electrician by the name of Thomas Watson and worked on the idea of developing a device D_______.

By 1875 they had progressed signif icantly and had proven that E________. On 2nd June of that year, Bell mistakenly managed to transmit sound over a wire during an experiment with Watson. By July they had built what was to be the main elements of the telephone. Bell spoke into his instrument, “Do you understand what I say?” and Mr Watson answered “Yes”. However, the voice sounds were not very clear F__________. The first successful bi-directional transmission of clear speech by Bell and Watson was made on March 10, 1876 when Bell spoke into the device, “Mr Watson, come here, I want to see you,” and Watson answered.

  1. different speech tones would vary the strength of an electric current in a wire
  2. and sent back to the other side
  3. making a telephone call for the first time
  4. and still needed some improvements
  5. through an electric wire from one place to another
  6. to imagine transmitting multiple messages over the same wire at the same time
  7. that would transmit human speech
Решение
Ответ: 526714
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